Any large and heavy vehicles in motion significantly increase the level of danger on the road. Driving a truck on a highway is a difficult process. To be a truck driver, you need to have special skills and knowledge that only appear with experience.
Features and difficulties of driving trucks
Simple trucks include vehicles with a carrying capacity not exceeding 3.5 tons. Truck driver such vehicles is identical to driving cars. Simple trucks move gently around the city and transport oversized products or building materials.
Driving a large wagon includes a number of features that will be discussed below.
Start of movement
In order to learn how to be a truck driver correctly in winter, you need to master the basics of driving large vehicles.
The movement must be started after the engine warms up to 70 ° and higher. The machine should move away smoothly, without jerking. Otherwise, wheel slip will occur, tire wear will increase, and gasoline consumption will not be economical.
If the van is laden, the truck driver should only start from the first gear. The automatic transmission is easier: no need to manually select the speed.
When starting the uphill movement, you need to start squeezing the clutch a little before the car is released. Some Daph and Volvo transmissions are equipped with a synchronizer. Then it is necessary to switch gears in descending order. The Volvo truck tractor also has increased and decreased efficiency.
When changing from the second gear to the first, the clutch must be disengaged twice with periodic short pressing on the fuel control pedal. Otherwise, the gear may fail.
The turning radius of a truck with a length of 20 m . When making a turn, one rule should be remembered – the trailer is constantly shifting towards its center, and accordingly the radius of the maneuver being performed is quite large.
A dangerous situation in driving most often arises when driving around the city: the roads are not wide and have a small turning radius. Some models of trailers and semi-trailers “Scania” are equipped with swivel wheels to simplify the driving process.
How to be a truck driver in reverse? It is not easy to be a truck driver in reverse. It takes practice. The main difficulty is pushing force, which constantly pulls the trailer to the side. The truck driver must carefully monitor the position of the drive wheels and guide them.
You will not be able to quickly learn how to truck driver moving in reverse. To speed up the process, it is advisable to watch a training video or get mastery lessons from an experienced specialist. You can do this right here:
While driving, remember that stopping the car in summer and winter has its own characteristics.
Performing a long ascent, it is necessary to select and engage the gear in which it will be performed in advance. Acceleration should be avoided when descending. The higher the speed, the harder it is to stop the car. If necessary, you can use service braking or reduce speed by downshifting on the box.
When driving a truck and preparing to stop, it is necessary to reduce the travel speed in advance. This will give a stopping distance margin.
It is important to consider the quality of the road surface and weather conditions. So, for example, the braking distance on a wet road will be much higher than on dry asphalt.
Selecting a speed mode
The main component of road safety is the choice of the speed limit. Therefore, trucks have a number of speed limits:
- Travel speed on motorways – no more than 90 km / h.
- Travel speed on country roads is not higher than 70 km / h.
- The speed of movement in settlements is not higher than 60 km / h.
There have been cases when truck drivers went to overtake at a speed of 90 km / h, resulting in an accident.
Truck driving is a difficult and complex process that includes a number of features. Anyone can stop a car on dry asphalt, but on a slippery surface, most need to learn. Drum braking systems are often used in our country.
It would seem that the difference is small, but it can save someone’s life. The braking distance is influenced by the condition of the tire, tires and suspension used.
When a vehicle is moving, sometimes a situation arises when a trailer, which is several times heavier than a car, tries to maintain its trajectory regardless of where the car is headed. The wheels begin to slip, the traction weakens and the trailer “carries”. As a result, a folding effect occurs – the cab turns and the trailer travels in a straight line.
More often than not, such moments end tragically. A number of factors affect their occurrence, including the skill of the driver in driving the truck.
Learning to drive a wagon is not difficult, but it is much harder to steer competently. So, for example, if the driver is experienced, he will react instantly when drifting. The main causes of folding are a snowy roadside or a burst wheel. Therefore, the technical condition of the car must be at the highest level.